Genetics Notes Warm-up:

1. What is genetics? The study of genes. (Study of Heredity)
2. What are genes? Segments of DNA, which code for specific traits of an organism.
3. What is heredity? The passing of genetic traits fromparents to offspring.
4. What is a characteristic? A feature that has different forms in a population.
5. What is a trait? A different form of a characteristic.
6. What is an Allele? Different forms of a gene.
7. What is Genotype? An organism's genetic code.
8. What is Phenotype? An organisms's physical appearance.
9. What are Dominant Alleles?

= An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism.

- Stronger, more powereful alleles.

- Traits are always expressed when present.

- Represented by Capital Letters. (T, H, M, etc...)

10. What are Recessive Alleles?

= An allele whose trait is masked in the presence of the dominant allele.

- Weaker alleles.

- Traits are only expressed if Dominant Alleles are absent.

- Represented by lowercase letters. (t, h, m, etc...)

11. How does Genotype relate to Phenotype? - Genotype determines Phenotype. (Genetic Code determines Physical Appearance.)
12. What is a Homozygous Combination? - Allele combination, where the alleles from both parents are the same. Either both alleles are dominant (MM) or both alleles are recessive (mm).
13. What is a Heterozygous Combination? - Allele combination, where the offspring receive different alleles from each parent. The allele from the mom may be dominant while the allele from the dad is recessive or the reverse. (Mm) or (mM).
 14. How do Scientists use Punnett Squares? A Punnett Square is a Scientificc Tool that Scientisist use to predict possible genotypes of future offspring.
 15. What is Probability?

A mathematical calculation of the likelihood a possible event will occur.

16.) What is codominance?

Codominance is when neither alllele is dominant or recessive, resulting in a blended trait.

Neither allele is more powerful than the other.

17.) What is genetic variation? The differences in the sets of alleles between individuals in a population.
18.) What is a populations? A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place.
19.) Besides genes, what else can have an influence on characteristic traits? External Factors & Internal Factors can determine characteristic traits.
20.) Describe Mendel's 1st set of experiments. He crossed 2 plants that were true breeding for different traits. The offspring always had the dominant trait.
21.) Describe Mendel's 2nd set of experiments. He allowed the plants that were the offspring from his 1st experiments to self-pollinate. Most of the 2nd-generation plants had the dominant trait, but some of the offspring had the recessive trait.
22.) Explain the difference between self-pollination & cross-pollination.

- Self-Pollination occurs when pollen from a particular plant is deposited on a stigma from the same plant.

- Cross-pollination occurs when the pollen & stigma are from 2 different plants.