What are the cell structures & how do they function?

Cell structures are cell parts & their functions are the jobs each part does.
1. Cell Wall

= A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane & provides support to the cell.

-Found in Plant, Fungi, Protists, Archae & Bacteria Cells. (Animal Cells don't have a cell wall.)

- Plant & Algae Cell Walls are made of cellulose.

2. Cell Membrane

(All Cells)

= A selectively permeable protective barrier, that surrounds all cells.

- Made up of proteins & lipids. (Phospholipids)

- Separates the cell from its environment.

- Determines what can enter & exit the cell.

3. Cytoskeleton = The cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that play an essential role in cell movement, shape & division.
4. Nucleus (Nucleolus makes Ribosomes) = Membrane bound Control Center of the cell, which contains the cell's DNA & Nucleolus. Is in charge of everything that happens in the cell.
5. Ribosomes = Organelles that make proteins. Not covered by a membrane.

6. Endoplasmic Reticulum


= A system of membranes that assists in the production, processing & transport of proteins & in the production of lipids.

- Rough E.R. is covered in ribosomes & usually found near the nucleus. The Rough E.R. delivers the proteins made by the ribosomes on the Rough E.R.

- Smooth E.R. lacks ribosomes, makes lipids & breaks down materials.

7. Mitochondria (Powerhouse)

= Double Membrane Bound Organelle & contains its own DNA.

- Site of Cellular Respiration. Breaks down sugar & makes ATP, realeasing energy.

8. Chloroplasts



(Photosynthesis Equation)

= Double Membrane Bound Organelle & contains its own DNA.

Found in plant & algae cells where photosynthesis occurs.

- Chloroplasts are green because they contain the green pigment chlorophyll.

6CO2 + 6H2O Sunlight> C6H12O6 + 6O2

Carbon Dioxide + Water with Sunlight> Glucose + Oxygen


9.) Golgi Complex

(Golgi Body)

= Organelle that helps make & package materials to be transported throughout the cell. (Mail Room or Post Office.)
10.) Lysosomes

Organelles that contains digestive enzymes, & digests materials, destroys worn-out or damaged organelles, rid of waste materials, & engulfs foreign invaders.

-Usually found in Animal Cells. (Clean up Crew)

11.) Vacuoles

= A vesicle which stores water & materials for the cell.

- Plant Cells have Large Central Vacuoles.

- Animal Cells have small vacuoles.