CELL CYCLE NOTES:
|1. What is the Cell Cycle?||The Cell Cycle is the Life Cycle of a cell.|
2.) What is Mitosis?
- Cell Division for Somatic (Body) Cells.
|3.) What is Meiosis?||
- Cell Division for Sex Cells (Gametes)
|4) What is a Chromosome?||- Chromosomes are made up of DNA & Protein.
- Contained in Nucleus in Eukaryotic Cells
- Main ring of DNA in Prokaryotic Cells.
|5.) What is a Chromatid?||- 1/2 a Chromosome.|
|6.) What are Chromatin?||- Unwound Chromosomes.|
|7.) How is the Cell Cycle Divided?||- The Cell Cycle is divided into 3 Stages.
- Stage 1 = Interphase (G1, S, G2)
- Stage 2 = Mitosis (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase & Telophase)
- Stage 3 = Cytokinesis
|8.) What are the 4 Phases of Mitosis?||- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, & Telophase (PMAT)|
|9.) What are the 8 Phases of Meiosis?||- Prophase1, Metaphase1, Anaphase1, Telophase1,
- Prophase2, Metaphase2, Anaphase2 & Telophase2
|10.) 1st Stage = Interphase (G1, S, G2)||
- Cell grows to its mature size & copies
its organelles & chromatin.
|11.) 2nd Stage = Mitosis||- Cell prepares to divide. (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase & Telophase)|
|12.) Mitosis Phase 1 = Prophase||- Chromosomes condense from long strands (chromatin)
to rodlike structures
(chromosomes). Centrioles & spindle fibers appear. The nuclear
membrane begins to disappear.
|13.) Mitosis Phase 2 = Metaphase||- The Nuclear Membrane is dissolved.
- Paired Chromosomes align at the cell's equator. (Middle of the cell.)
- Centrioles move to opposite poles & attach spindle fibers to the chromosomes.
Phase 3 = Anaphase
|-The spindle fibers pull on the chromosomes,
which causes the chromatids to separate.
- The chromatids are pulled apart towards
opposite ends of the cell.
|15.) Mitosis Phase 4 = Anaphase||- The cell membrane pinches inwards.
- A Nuclear Membrane reforms
around each set of chromosomes,
at opposite ends of the cell.
Chromosomes become chromatin.
|17.) How many chromosomes are
contained in Human Diploid Cells &
Human Haploid Cells?
|- Human Diploid Cells contain 46 Chromosomes (A
full set of chromosomes).
- Human Haploid Cells contain 23 Chromosomes (Half a set of chromosomes).
|18.) What is Binary Fission?||- A type of asexual reproduction amongst prokaryotes
where the cell copies the circular chromosome (ring of DNA) & then divides
into 2 new cells.
|19.) Which organisms reproduce by
|- Bacteria use Binary Fission to reproduce.|
CELL CYCLE DIAGRAMS:
|1st Stage = Interphase (G1, S, G2)|
|2nd Stage = Mitosis||Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase & Telophase|
|Mitosis Phase 1 = Prophase|
|Mitosis Phase 2 = Metaphase|
|Mitosis Phase 3 = Anaphase|
|Mitosis Phase 4 = Telophase|
6.) 3rd Stage = Cytokinesis
*** Overall Cell Cycle =
- 1st Stage = Interphase (Divided into G1, S & G2 Phases)
- 2nd Stage = Mitosis (Divided into Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase & Telophase)
- 3rd Stage = Cytokinesis (Final Division of Cell)